Literatura i linkovi
Schönherr, Daniel, Leibetseder Bettina, Moser, Winfried & Hofinger Christoph (2019): Diskriminierungsverfahren in Österreich. Erleben von Ungleichbehandlung, Benachteiligung und Herabwürdigung in den Bereichen Arbeit, Wohnen, medizinische Dienstleistungen und Ausbildung. Vienna: Chamber of Labour Vienna
The study investigated, which groups of people in Austria are facing discrimination. The results showed that apart of people with migratory background, muslims, people with physical disabilities and people from a lower social class, employees with children are severely affected by discrimination, especially in the labour market access.
Warming, Kenn, Roseberry, Lynn, Precht, Kirsten, Hansen, Trine Berner & Granerud Gunvor (2019): Discrimination against Parents – Experiences of Discrimination in Connection with Pregnancy and Parental Leave. Kopenhagen: Danish Institute for Human Rights.
The study investigated the types and the extent of discrimination against parents and expecting parents. It was found out that half of the women and a quarter of the men questioned face discrimination in connection with pregnancy and parenthood. The experienced forms of discrimination range from questions about pregnancy and desire to have children in job applications over a deterioration of the working climate after announcing pregnancy to pejorative remarks from the boss or from workmates and worse working conditions after returning from pregnancy or parental leave. In some cases, parents even did not return to their workplace due to bad experiences during pregnancy.
Wagner-Steinrigl, Sabine (2017): Vereinbarkeit von Beruf und Kindern: Diskriminierungsmuster bei Fällen der Gleichbehandlungsanwaltschaft. In: Wiso. Vol. 40, No. 4, 120-131.
Description of recurring types of discrimination in connection with parental leave and pregnancy on the basis of case studies. Presentation of strategies to reduce discrimination against parents at the workplace.
Spiegl, Julia (2016). Vereinbarkeit von Beruf und familiären Sorgepflichten- latenter Dauerkonflikt. In: Best-Practice des modernen Konfliktmanagements in Unternehmen, Vol. 3, Hrsg. Ferz, Sascha & Salicites Hanna, 1-8.
Based on latest developments (increasing ratio of part-time work, high part-time ratio for women, gender inequalities with regard to unwaged work, slight increase of fathers taking parental leave and a high proportion of unwaged work) the author argues why it is not only necessary but also lucrative for organizations to act family-friendly. On the basis of practical examples it is shown how employers can support parents at work.
Fuegen, Kathleen, Biernat, Monica, Haines, Elizabeth & Deaux Kay (2004): Mothers and Fathers in the Workplace: How Genderand Parental Status Influence Judgments of Job-Related Competence. In: Journal of Social Issue. Vol. 60, No. 4, 737-754.
This empirical study from the USA investigates how parental status influences the judgement of job-related competence and skills and whether there are differences between mothers and fathers. The results show big gender-specific differences. While mothers are judged more strictly than women without children, fathers are judged more lenient than men without children.
Correll, Shelley J., Benard, Stephen & Paik In (2007): Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty? In: American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 112, No. 5, 1297-1338.
This experimental study investigates the effect of family status in job applications. The results show that despite of having the same formal qualification, mothers are judged less competent than women without children. In contrast, fathers are judged even more competent than men without children.
Halpert, J. A., Wilson, M. L. & Hickman, J. L. (1993): Pregnancy as a source of bias in performance appraisals. In: Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 14, No. 7, 649–663.
Experimental study (use of video clips) that investigates stereo types about pregnant women and the effect of pregnancy on the evaluation of job-related competence. It was found out that pregnant women are expected to be less committed to their job, overly emotional, irrational and physically limited. Especially from male participants pregnant women received bad ratings Many male participants even argued that pregnant women should not work but stay at home.
Mauerer, Gerlinde (2016): Neuland Vaterschaft – Pioniergeist und männliche Beziehungspflege. https://www.vfw.or.at/wp content/uploads/2016/11/Mauerer_Vaterschaft_Elternkarenz_VfW_Online_Dokumentation_-2016.pdf. last access: 4.10.2019.
Experiences from fathers living an active parenthood and deviating from the normative role expectations. The fathers talked about positive experiences when working in the area of social services, in civil service or when the supervisor himself also was in parental leave. Apart of these positive experiences many fathers also received critical and pejorative remarks. There were found factors, that can encourage fathers to go on parental leave. These are flexible working models, models of representation and men in leading positions, who take parental leave.
Lojewski, J., Harth, V. & Mache, S (2017): Stressoren für Schwangere am Arbeitsplatz. In: Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie. Vol.67, No. 1, 40-43.
Presentation of factors that cause stress for pregnant women at the workplace. Discrimination is one of the most important factors, which causes stress and can have a negative influence on the health of mother and child. Organizational factors such as unfavourable workplace culture, inflexible work time regulations, gender stereotypes or a lack of awareness and understanding for the rights of pregnant employees can reinforce stress for pregnant women at the workplace.
Chester, Nefertiti & Kleiner, Brian H (2001): Pregnancy in the Workplace. In: The International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy. Vol. 21, No. 8-10, 137-147.
International comparison of legal protection against discrimination of pregnant women at the workplace with a focus on Europe and the USA.
Masser, Barbara, Grass, Kirsten, Nesic, Michell (2007): We Like You, But We Don’t Want You’ -The Impact of Pregnancy in the Workplace. In: Sex Roles, Vol. 57, 703–712.
This experimental study investigates if the discrimination already begins in pregnancy and if pregnant women working in male-dominated areas are more affected by discrimination. It is shown that pregnant women are disadvantaged in hiring practices, as despite being rated competent, the participants indicated, that they would rather hire non-pregnant women. There were no differences found between pregnant women working in male-dominated areas and those working in female-dominated areas.
Mauerer, Gerlinde & Schmidt Eva-Maria (2019): Parents’ Strategies in Dealing with Constructions of Gendered Responsibilities at Their Workplaces. In: Social Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 250
This Austrian study investigated if the division of childcare between parents is influenced by normative role expectations and expectations from the supervisor. It also presents the situation of parents who deviate from normative role expectations concerning the division of childcare. The results show that parents face difficulties when they do not meet the normative role expectations. Men who want to reduce their working hours in favour of childcare experience a lack of understanding by their workmates and supervisors. The same applies for women with children who do not want to reduce their workload.
Hackl, Marion (2013): Väter und Mütter in (Eltern-)Teilzeit. Motive, Auswirkungen und Reaktionen. Wien: Bundesministerin für Frauen und Öffentlichen Dienst im Bundeskanzleramt Österreich.
In Chapter 4 of this study the focus is on the reactions from the professional and social environment towards parents, who decide to reduce their working hours. Whilst there was one group of parents, who did not have any problems to take parental-part time, there were also parents wo took parental-part time due to their legal rights although their supervisors did not support this decision. These group of parents had to deal with harassment, relocations, exclusion from important appointments and a worse performance evaluation.
Haas, Linda & Hwang, Philip (2016). “It’s About Time!”: Company Support for Fathers’ Entitlement to Reduced Work Hours in Sweden. Social Politics 2016 Vol. 23, No. 1.
A Swedish study which examines if organizations in Sweden support fathers who reduce their working hours in favour of childcare. The results show that there is little support for part-time working fathers and that the majority of fathers do not reduce their working hours despite their legal right to do so. It is assumed that the lack of institutional pressure on organizations and normative role expectations are the reason for that.
Cuddy, Amy J.C., Fiske, Susan T. and Glic, Peter (2004): When Professionals Become Mothers, Warmth Doesn’tCut the Ice. In: Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 60: 701–18
The study examines the prejudices faced by working mothers and the characteristics attributed to them and shows that mothers are rated warmer but less competent, whereas women without children are rated less warm but more competent.
Becker S., Fernandes A., Weichselbaumer D. (2019): Discrimination in Hiring Based on Potential and Realized Fertility: Evidence from a Large-Scale Field Experiment, in Labour Economics, Vol. 59: 139-152
An experimental study recently conducted in Germany, Switzerland and Austria, which investigated the effect of a candidate’s family status in hiring practices. The results show that married, but childless women and women with younger children are disadvantaged in comparison to single women or married women with older children. These effects were only found for women applying for part-time jobs, whereas family status did not affect hiring decisions concerning women applying for full time jobs.